Progress in Flight Physics Volume 5

Volume presentation

The book contains 37 selected, revised, and thoroughly edited papers addressing various issues of flight physics written by world-known experts. The papers include critical analyses of previous studies and controversial aspects of novel flight concepts, new theoretical and experimental results and findings as well as numerous references to archival publications worldwide. The book is organized in 9 chapters: (1) Turbulence Modeling; (2) Boundary Layer Stability; (3) Flow Control; (4) Vortex, Wake, and Base Flows; (5) Shock Interaction; (6) Hypersonics; (7) Reentry; (8) Real Gases and Rarefied Flows; and (9) Configuration Aerodynamics, Sonic Boom, and Aircraft Aerodynamic Model. The volume was prepared as a reference for research scientists and practicing engineers in the field of flight physics.

EUCASS: The Association

The European Conference for AeroSpace Sciences, EUCASS ( is a nonprofit international association established in Belgium. It was founded in July 2006 to stimulate the development of pure and applied aerospace sciences in Europe. The purposes of EUCASS are scientific, technical, and educational.

The association focuses on forefront science and cutting-edge technologies. It is at the service of Academia, Industry, Agencies, and other decision makers, by fostering communication and cooperation among them in order to reduce the time to the market for innovations. The association helps young scientists to find internships outside their countries of origin and supplies information on mobility and job opportunities. Last, it promotes a much-needed dialog between researchers and the governing bodies of Europe.

The base of EUCASS is the European Continent, Russia included. Members from all other countries are welcome. Today, the association counts in excess of 500 members from over 30 different countries. It is a member of the International Astronautical Association (IAF) and is partnering with European disciplinary associations ECCOMAS, ERCOFTAC, EUROMECH, and EUROTURBO and with CEAS, the Council of European Aerospace Societies.

Among its notable activities, the EUCASS team has already organized four major first-ever conferences each attended by over 500 participants:

€ Moscow (July 2005) co-organized by ONERA and TsAGI with partial operational support from AAAF and the Russian Academy of Sciences;
€ Brussels (July 2007) co-organized by ULB and VKI;
€ Versailles (July 2009) organized by the ASTECH Cluster;
€ St. Petersburg (July 2011) jointly organized by N.N. Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences and TORUS PRESS.

Each conference included several parallel symposia, such as System Integration, Flight Physics, Flight Dynamics, Structures and Materials, and Propulsion Physics. In the organization of the above conferences, great attention was always paid to the facilitation of cross-fertilization between multidisciplinary activities and between applications of any given technology to space and to aeronautics.

EUCASS has also launched a series of high-level Aerospace Thematic Workshops dedicated to fundamental topics of promising potential for aerospace applications, like the one on "Fundamentals of Flow and Combustion Control by Plasmas." The first of these was held in May 2007 at Varenna, Italy; the second and third editions followed in October 2009 and April 2011 at Les Houches Physics School in France.

The association's mission is not limited to organizing its biennial conferences and workshops. One of its fundamental tasks is also to publish high quality monographs in the form of book series compiling the best scientific works presented. Since 2007, it has been partnering with TORUS PRESS for these proceedings; it also encourages authors to submit their regular articles to the well-established Journal of Aerospace Engineering Part G of SAGE Publications Ltd.


Philippe Reijasse, Deputy director at the Fundamental and Experimental Aerodynamics Department of ONERA. He is a graduate of Ecole Supérieure des Techniques Aéronautiques et de Construction Automobile (ESTACA) at Paris, France. He received his Ph.D. from the University Pierre-et-Marie-Curie (Paris, France). His main research area is fluid mechanics of compressible flows (e.g., shock waves and flow separation in propulsion systems, nozzle unsteady aerodynamics, transonic and supersonic base flows).

Doyle Knight, Professor in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. He is a graduate of Occidental College and the California Institute of Technology in Physics (BA) and Aeronautics (BS). He received his MS and Ph.D. from the California Institute of Technology in Aeronautics. His research interest is computational gas dynamics with applications to high speed flows and design optimization.

Professor Mikhail Ivanov is the Head of the Computational Aerodynamics Laboratory of the Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. His research interests include: kinetic gas theory and direct statistical simulation, plume flows and impingement, rarefied flows in micronozzles, hypersonic aerothermodynamics of space vehicles, near-continuum hypersonic separated flows, shock wave/laminar boundary layer interaction, shock/shock interaction, and transition from regular to Mach reflection in steady flows. He is an AIAA Fellow.

Igor Lipatov, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Head of Theoretical Department of TsAGI. He is a graduate of the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (Aeronautical Department). He received his Ph.D. thesis from TsAGI on flows with mass transfer and Doctoral thesis on unsteady processes of viscous–inviscid interaction. His main research area is supersonic viscous gas flows. He published more than 100 meeting papers and publications. Four times he got National Zhukovsky Prize for the best research work in Aeronautics.


EUCASS addresses all topics of interest to aerospace, from research challenges to long-term programmes and administrative problems. It is organized in several permanent Technical Committees (TC). One of them is the Flight Physics TC. Within the broad EUCASS framework, the specific purpose of the Flight Physics TC is to promote the technology, sciences, and arts of flight physics and to help those engagedin these pursuits to develop their skills and those of their students.

The Propulsion Physics Symposium covers all aspects of air-breathing and space propulsion, spanning from new developments in engines and propellants to modeling and testing. Topics range from basic research and development to applied studies, using experimental, theoretical, and/or advanced numerical methods, with a special focus on fundamental physical understanding.

This fifth volume of the EUCASS book series on advances in aerospace sciences is dedicated to progress in flight physics and includes a collection of the best papers, presented in this or closely connected areas, at the 4th European Conference for Aerospace Sciences held in Saint Petersburg, Russia, July 4-€8, 2011.

The Propulsion Symposium of this conference was ideally dedicated to the 50th anniversary of the historical orbital flight by Yu. Gagarin (April 12, 1961) and turned out to be a major meeting in the field of propulsion R&D with around 180 presentations.

About 1/4 of the total number of papers accepted for presentation at the conference was later selected by the volume editors and subsequently edited by an international body of peer reviewers. The current book is the product of this long distillation process.

The volume includes nine chapters covering experimental, theoretical, and numerical aspects of the Flight physics:

  • Chapter 1 Turbulence Modeling
  • Chapter 2 Boundary Layer Stability
  • Chapter 3 Flow Control
  • Chapter 4 Vortex, Wake, and Base Flows
  • Chapter 5 Shock Interaction
  • Chapter 6 Hypersonics
  • Chapter 7 Reentry
  • Chapter 8 Real Gases and Rarefied Flows
  • Chapter 9 Configuration Aerodynamics, Sonic Boom, and Aircraft Aerodynamic Model

To easily identify and put in the right perspective the material of interest, the reader is invited to consult the brief introduction and paper summaries compiled at the start of the nine chapters.

We sincerely trust that this joint international effort will help all readers to gain a better understanding of aerospace propulsion and to further appreciate and widen the fascinating horizons of the aerospace world.


Special thanks are due to our sponsors, without which the 2011 conference would not have taken place:

  • European Space Agency (ESA);
  • Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES);
  • Russian Foundation for Basic Research;
  • International Science and Technology Center (ISTC); and
  • Office National d'Etudes et de Recherches Aérospatiales (ONERA).

It is our pleasure to thank for their valuable and patient support:

€ members of the local Organizing Committee;
€ members of the International Advisory Committee;
€ session chairs and speakers, and
€ all conference participants.

The present book would not have been possible without the support and careful work of the international college of reviewers purposely nominated for this task. The quality of any scientific book is largely due to the willingness of reviewers to share their expertise and knowledge with unknown colleagues from all over the world.

As a minor token of the editors' appreciation for reviewers' diligence and work, the names of all contributing reviewers are listed hereafter:

Narayan Ananthkrishnan
Selin Aradag
Joanna Austin
Amer Chpoun
Russ Cummings
Sebastien Deck
Jean Délery
David Deprés
Piotr Doerffer
Jean-Paul Dussauge
Jack Edwards
Eric Garnier
Nick Glumac
Allan Grosvenor
Ali Guelhan
Mikhail Ivanov
Anatoly Kharitonov
Anatoly Klimov
Doyle Knight
Victor Kopiev
Alexander Kosinov
Valery Kovalev
Victor Kozlov
Mikhail Kuznetsov
Andrea Lani
Lionel Larchevêque
Benjamin Leclaire
Guillaume Lehnasch
Igor Lipatov
Heinrich Luedeke
Pino Martin
Neil Paul Murray
Jean Muylaert
Francesco Nasuti
Herbert Olivier
Sandrine Palerm
Philippe Reijasse
Bodo Reimann
Jean-Christophe Robinet
Wilson Santos
Fulvio Scarano
Vladimir Schalaev
Richard Schwane
Mohammed Sellam
Nandan Kumar Sinha
Edward Vasilevsky
Vasily Vedeneev
Louis Walpot
Steve Wilkinson
Kun Xu
Hong Yan
Gecheng Zha
Xiaolin Zhong

The conference and this volume are the outcome of hard work of several dedicated teams, and we appreciate their valuable contributions. In particular, we acknowledge the assistance given at various stages by the staff of TORUS PRESS Publishers in organizing the conference and for the excellent production of this volume.