Volume 9, 2017Progress in Flight Physics
|Page(s)||301 - 326|
|Section||Nonequilibrium and rarefied flows|
|Published online||20 June 2017|
A gas kinetic scheme for hybrid simulation of partially rarefied flows
School of Engineering, University of Liverpool Liverpool L69 3GH, U.K.
Approaches to predict flow fields that display rarefaction effects incur a cost in computational time and memory considerably higher than methods commonly employed for continuum flows. For this reason, to simulate flow fields where continuum and rarefied regimes coexist, hybrid techniques have been introduced. In the present work, analytically defined gas-kinetic schemes based on the Shakhov and Rykov models for monoatomic and diatomic gas flows, respectively, are proposed and evaluated with the aim to be used in the context of hybrid simulations. This should reduce the region where more expensive methods are needed by extending the validity of the continuum formulation. Moreover, since for high-speed rare¦ed gas flows it is necessary to take into account the nonequilibrium among the internal degrees of freedom, the extension of the approach to employ diatomic gas models including rotational relaxation process is a mandatory first step towards realistic simulations. Compared to previous works of Xu and coworkers, the presented scheme is de¦ned directly on the basis of kinetic models which involve a Prandtl number correction. Moreover, the methods are defined fully analytically instead of making use of Taylor expansion for the evaluation of the required derivatives. The scheme has been tested for various test cases and Mach numbers proving to produce reliable predictions in agreement with other approaches for near-continuum flows. Finally, the performance of the scheme, in terms of memory and computational time, compared to discrete velocity methods makes it a compelling alternative in place of more complex methods for hybrid simulations of weakly rarefied flows.
© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2017
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.