Progress in Flight Physics Volume 7

Volume presentation

The book contains thirty-five papers selected from over 140 papers presented in the Flight Physics sessions at EUCASS 2013 in Munich, Germany. These papers were reviewed by experts, revised, and throughly edited to provide state-of-the-art knowledge in their respective fields. The book is organized in eight chapters: (1) Aerodynamics; (2) Experimental Facilities; (3) Flow Control; (4) Inlets, Nozzles, and Internal Flows; (5) Jets and Wakes; (6) Non-equilibrium and Rarefield Flows; (7) Shock Waves; and (8) Stability and Transition. The volume was prepared as a reference for research scientists and practicing engineers in the field of flight physics.

EUCASS: The Association

The EUropean Conference for AeroSpace Sciences, EUCASS ( is a nonprofit international association established in Belgium. It was founded in July 2006 to stimulate the development of pure and applied aerospace sciences in Europe. The purposes of EUCASS are scientific, technical, and educational. The association focuses on forefront science and cutting-edge technologies. It is at the service of Academia, Industry, Agencies, and other decision makers, by fostering communication and cooperation among them in order to reduce the time to the market for innovations. The association helps young scientists to find internships outside their countries of origin and supplies information on mobility and job opportunities. Last, it promotes a much-needed dialog between researchers and the governing bodies of Europe. The base of EUCASS is the European Continent, Russia included. Members from all other countries are welcome. Today, the association counts in excess of 600 members from over 30 different countries. It is a member of the International Astronautical Association (IAF) and is partnering with European disciplinary associations ECCOMAS, ERCOFTAC, EUROMECH, and EUROTURBO and with CEAS, the Council of European Aerospace Societies. Among its notable activities, the EUCASS team has already organized five major first-ever conferences each attended by over 500 participants:

  • Moscow (July 2005) co-organized by ONERA and TsAGI with partial operational support from AAAF and the Russian Academy of Sciences;
  • Brussels (July 2007) co-organized by ULB and VKI;
  • Versailles (July 2009) organized by the ASTECH Cluster;
  • St. Petersburg (July 2011) jointly organized by the N.N. Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences and TORUS PRESS;
  • Munich (July 2013) jointly organized by the Technical University of Munich and Astrium (subsequently merged into Airbus Defence and Space) Ottobrun, with support from CIMNE in Barcelona.

Each conference includes several parallel symposia, namely, System Integration, Flight Physics, Flight Dynamics, Structures and Materials, and Propulsion Physics. In the organization of the above conferences, great attention is always paid to the facilitation of cross-fertilization between multidisciplinary activities and between applications of any given technology to space and to aeronautics.

EUCASS has also launched a series of high-level Aerospace Thematic Workshops dedicated to fundamental topics of promising potential for aerospace applications, like the one on "Fundamentals of flow and combustion control by plasmas". The first of these was held in May 2007 at Varenna, Italy; the second and third editions followed in October 2009 and April 2011 at Les Houches Physics School in France. The most recent one of the series was in Aussois in April 2013.

The association's mission is not limited to organizing its biennial conferences and workshops. One of its fundamental tasks is also to publish high quality monographs in the form of Book Series compiling the best scientific works presented. Since 2007, it has been partnering with TORUS PRESS for these proceedings; it also encourages authors to submit their regular articles to the well-established Journal of Aerospace Engineering Part G of SAGE Publications Ltd.

EUCASS Honorary President
Jean-Pierre Taran


Doyle Knight, Distinguished Professor in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Rutgers — The State University of New Jersey. He is a graduate of Occidental College and the California Institute of Technology in Physics (BA) and Aeronautics (BS). He received his MS and PhD from the California Institute of Technology in Aeronautics. His research interest is computational gas dynamics with applications to high-speed flows and flow control, and design optimization. He has published more than 100 journal papers and nearly 200 conference papers.

Igor Lipatov, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Head of Theoretical Department of TsAGI. He is a graduate of Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (Aeronautical Department). He received his PhD degree from TsAGI on flows with mass transfer and Doctoral thesis on unsteady processes of viscous-inviscid interaction. His main research area is supersonic viscous gas flows. He has published more than 100 conference papers and journal publications. He has four times received the National Zhukovsky Prize for the best research work in aeronautics. In 2011, he was elected as Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Philippe Reijasse, Deputy Director of the Fundamental and Experimental Aerodynamics Department of ONERA. He is a graduate of Ecole Supérieure des Techniques Aéronautiques et de Construction Automobile (ESTACA) at Paris, France. He received his PhD from the University Pierre-et-Marie-Curie at Paris, France. His main research interest is fluid mechanics of compressible flows (in particular, shock waves and flow separation in propulsion systems, nozzle unsteady aerodynamics, transonic and supersonic base flows).


The EUropean Conference for AeroSpace Sciences (EUCASS) is organized into five main areas, each represented by its respective Technical Committee:

  1. Flight Dynamics, GNC, and Avionics;
  2. Flight Physics;
  3. Propulsion Physics;
  4. Structures and Materials; and
  5. Systems Integration.

Each Technical Committee organizes sessions at the biannual EUCASS. Abstracts are solicited from research scientists and engineers worldwide and reviewed by the Technical Committees in consideration for oral presentation at the EUCASS and publication of the full paper in the EUCASS proceedings. The Flight Physics sessions at the EUCASS 2013 comprised 22 sessions and 142 written papers. A subset of approximately one-fourth of these papers were selected by the Flight Physics Technical Committee for external review, revision by the authors, and publication in this bound volume. These papers, therefore, represent scientific contributions of the highest quality and impact on their respective communities.

The Flight Physics Technical Committee is pleased to present this volume containing eight chapters covering experimental, theoretical, and numerical aspects of flight physics. The chapters are organized alphabetically into Aerodynamics, Experimental Facilities, Flow Control; Inlets, Nozzles and Internal Flows; Jets and Wakes, Nonequilibrium and Rarefied Flows, Shock Waves, and Stability and Transition.

On behalf of the EUCASS Flight Physics Technical Committee,

Doyle Knight
New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA, February 2015


The Flight Physics Technical Committee gratefully acknowledges the patronage of Mr. Martin Zeil, Bavarian Deputy Prime Minister and State Minister for Economic Affairs, Infrastructure, Transport, and Technology. The Committee also expresses its deep appreciation for the EUCASS 2013 sponsors (in alphabetical order): Astrium (subsequently merged into Airbus Defence and Space), Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES), E-CAero, European Space Agency (ESA), ho-Computer, MT Aerospace, Munich Aerospace, Office National d'Études et de Recherches A‚erospatiales (ONERA), Safran Herakles, TsAGI (Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute named after N.E. Zhukovsky), and the United States Office of Naval Research.

The Flight Physics Technical Committee also gratefully acknowledges the efforts of the reviewers of the papers published in this volume. They are Russell Adelgren, Farrukh Alvi, Holger Babinsky, Luca Boccaletto, Vladimir Bogolepov, Vincent Brion, Valery Chernoray, K.-S. Choi, Meelan Choudhari, Amer Chpoun, Thomas Corke, Laurent Dala, Jean Délery, Jack Edwards, Ivan Egorov, Gregory Elliott, George Emanuel, Aleksandr Gaifullin, Pavel Georgievskiy, Abdellah Hadjadj, Hui Hu, Jean-Marie Le Gouez, Ali Guelhan, Vladislav Khlebnikov, Roger Kimmel, Andrey Kiselev, Viktor Kopiev, Viktor Kozlov, Mikhail Kuznetsov, Hadassah Lapin, Sergey Leonov, Chaoqun Liu, Frank Lu, Vladimir Markov, Florian Menter, Frederic Moens, Francesco Nasuti, Rolf Radespiel, Eli Reshotko, Jean-Christophe Robinet, Stephen Rolston, Eric Schall, Richard Schwane, Ferry Schrijer, Vladimir Shalaev, Thomas Shih, Andrey Sidorenko, Vitaly Soudakov, Louis Souverein, Ralf Stark, Viktor Sychev, Renat Tugazakov, Anatoly Tumin, David Van Wie, Shashi Verma, Philippe Villedieu, Xiaowen Wang, Pierre-Elie Weiss, and Vladimir Zhuk.

The EUCASS 2013 Flight Physics Volume is the outcome of the efforts of many dedicated individuals including the conference organizers and sponsors, authors, reviewers and the staff of TORUS PRESS. We extend our deepest appreciation to all.

In closing, the Flight Physics Technical Committee expresses its deepest appreciation for the efforts of our dear colleague and fellow Flight Physics Technical Committee member Mikhail Ivanov, who passed away on August 30, 2013. Mikhail was an outstanding scientist of exceptional ability, internationally recognized for his contributions to gas dynamics through his authorship of more than 350 scholarly publications. His presence continues to be deeply missed.

On behalf of the EUCASS Flight Physics Technical Committee,

Doyle Knight
New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA